List of Farm Animals, Farm Animals List

Farm Animals (Animales de granja)

English / Inglés Spanish / Español “Spanunciation”
Bull Toro búol
Cow Vaca káu
Chicken Pollo chéken
Chick Pollito chek
Donkey Burro dánki
Goat Cabra góut
Horse Caballo jors
Pig Cerdo peg
Rabbit Conejo rébet
Sheep Oveja ship
Turkey Pavo térki


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List of Animals that Migrate, Animal Migration List

Animal Migration

Animal migration is the traveling of long distances in search of a new habitat. The trigger for the migration may be local climate, local availability of food, or the season of the year. Bird migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of birds. Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability, habitat or weather. Fish usually migrate because of diet or reproductive needs, although in some cases the reason for migration remains unknown. Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths. Below is a list of animals that migrate, traveling to avoid bad weather, to find food, or to reproduce. What is the animal that travels the longest distance to migrate? The Arctic tern migrates the longest distances of any animal. It flies over 21,750 miles each year.

Fun Facts about Migrating Animals

  • The whale that migrates the longest is the Gray Whale, which migrates about 12,500 miles.
  • The insect that migrates the longest is the desert locust, which travels about 2,800 miles.
  • The butterfly that migrates the longest is the Monarch, which migrates up to 2,000 miles.
  • The land animal that migrates the longest is the caribou, which travels about 700 miles.

List of Animals that Migrate, Animal Migration List

  • African Elephant: It migrates to find food during the wet and drys seasons.
  • American Buffalo: The American Buffalo is the heaviest land animal in North America.
  • American Golden Plover: The American Golden Plover is a medium-sized shorebird.
  • Arctic Tern: A small bird that flies from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back again each year.
  • Basking Shark: A huge filter feeder and the second largest fish.
  • Bat: Bats are the only flying mammal. Some bats, like the Red bat, migrate.
  • Beluga Whale: A small, white, toothed whale that lives mostly in cold, Arctic waters.
  • Birds: Many birds, like the bobolink, the Arctic tern, and the Golden Plover, migrate.
  • Blue Shark: A sleek, fast-swimming shark with blue skin.
  • Bowhead Whale: A baleen whale rich in blubber.
  • Bull Shark: A blunt-nosed, dangerous, gray shark can that live in fresh water rivers and lakes.
  • Canada Goose: The Canada goose is a large North American bird that honks.
  • Caribou: Caribou are herbivores that live in Arctic regions.
  • Cockatoo: Cockatoos are birds with a large, feathery crest and a hooked bill.
  • Crab: A crab is an animal with a shell. Many crabs migrate to reproduce.
  • Dogfish Shark: A small, very common, relatively harmless shark found worldwide.
  • Dolphin: A dolphin is a small, toothed whale, a marine mammal.
  • Earthworm: An earthworm is a little animal with a long, soft body and no legs.
  • Elephant: There are two types of elephants, the Indian elephant and the African elephant.
  • Frog: Frogs are amphibians that migrate back to the pond, marsh, or lake where they hatched as tadpoles, and lay their own eggs there.
  • Fruit Bat: Fruit bats are large bats that eat fruits and flowers.
  • Hammerhead Shark: Large predators with a hammer-shaped head.
  • Gnu: The gnu is a fast-running, herding, grass-eater from eastern Africa.
  • Goose: The Canada goose is a large North American bird that honks.
  • Gray Whale: A baleen whale that is a bottom feeder; it migrates long distances.
  • Great White Shark: An enormous, ferocious predator found worldwide.
  • Greenland Shark: A large, slow-swimming shark with glow-in-the-dark eyes.
  • Hammerhead Shark: Large predators with a hammer-shaped head.
  • Hummingbird: Hummingbirds are tiny birds that eat flower nectar.
  • Humpback Whale: A long-flippered baleen whale that sings and frolics in the water.
  • Ladybug: Tiny flying insects that eat garden pests. Some ladybugs migrate.
  • Mako Shark: Large predators that are the fastest swimming fish!
  • Mallard Duck: The Mallard is a common wild duck that is the ancestor of most domestic ducks.
  • Manatee: Manatees are gentle, slow-swimming, aquatic mammals.
  • Salmon: Salmon are fish that live in the sea and spawn in fresh water.
  • Nightingale: A small songbird that sings beautiful, complex songs, often at night.
  • Oriole: The Baltimore Oriole is a black and orange bird that eats fruit and nectar.
  • Reindeer: Reindeer are herbivores that live in Arctic regions.
  • Sea Turtle: Sea turtles are large marine turtles.
  • Snow Goose: Snow Geese are migratory birds from North America.
  • Swordfish: The swordfish is a large fish with a long, sharp bill.
  • Tiger Shark: Large predators found worldwide in warm seas.
  • Toad: Toads are amphibians with poison glands. Toads migrate back to the pond, marsh, or lake where they hacthed as tadpoles, and lay their own eggs there.
  • Tuna: A large, bony fish that migrates thousands of miles across the oceans.
  • Umbrellabird: A bird with a large tuft of feathers on its head.
  • Wildebeest: The wildebeest is a fast-running, herding, grass-eater from eastern Africa. Also known as the gnu.
  • Zebra: Zebras are hoofed mammals that have black and white stripes.
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list of Mammals Sorted By Common Names

list of Mammals Sorted By Common Names


  • African Elephant – Loxodonta africana
  • American Black Bear – Ursus americanus
  • Arctic Wolf – Canis lupus arctos
  • Asiatic Elephant – Elephas maximus
  • Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin – Lagenorhynchus acutus
  • Aye-Aye – Daubentonia madagascariensis


  • Bats – Order Chiroptera
  • Black Rhinoceros – Diceros bicornis
  • Black-Footed Ferret – Mustela nigripes
  • Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus
  • Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus
  • Burchell’s Zebra – Equus burchellii


  • Carnivores – Order Carnivora
  • Cats – Family Felidae
  • Cetaceans – Order Cetacea
  • Common Dolphin – Delphinus delphis
  • Common seal – Phoca vitulina


  • Dusky Dolphin – Lagenorhynchus obscurus


  • Elephants – Order Proboscidea
  • Eurasian Lynx – Lynx lynx
  • Even-Toed Ungulates – Order Artiodactyla


  • Giant Anteater – Myrmecophaga tridactyla
  • Giant Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca
  • Giraffe – Giraffa camelopardalis
  • Golden-Crowned Sifaka – Propithecus tattersalli
  • Gorilla – Gorilla gorilla
  • Gray Whale – Eschrichtius robustus


  • Hares, Rabbits, & Pikas – Order Lagomorpha


  • Irrawaddy Dolphin – Orcaella brevirostris


  • Koala – Phascolarctos cinereus


  • Leopard – Panthera pardus


  • Mammals – Class Mammalia
  • Manatees – Genus Trichechus
  • Meerkat – Suricata suricatta
  • Mustelids – Family Mustelidae


  • Nine-Banded Armadillo – Dasypus novemcinctus
  • Northern Bottlenose Whale – Hyperoodon ampullatus


  • Odd-Toed Ungulates – Order Perissodactyla
  • Orca – Orcinus orca


  • Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca
  • Polar Bear – Ursus maritimus
  • Przewalski’s Wild Horse – Equus caballus przewalskii
  • Primates – Order Primates


  • Rodriguez Flying Fox – Pteropus rodricensis


  • Southern Tamandua – Tamandua tetradactyla
  • Spectacled Bear – Tremarctos ornatus


  • Tapirs – Family Tapiridae
  • Tiger – Panthera tigris


  • Xenarthrans – Order Xenarthra
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List of Mammals Sorted By Mammal Groups

List of Mammals Sorted By Mammal Groups

Anteaters and Relatives

  • Giant Anteater – Myrmecophaga tridactyla
  • Nine-Banded Armadillo – Dasypus novemcinctus
  • Southern Tamandua – Tamandua tetradactyla
  • Xenarthrans – Order Xenarthra


  • Bats – Order Chiroptera
  • Rodriguez Flying Fox – Pteropus rodricensis


  • American Black Bear – Ursus americanus
  • Arctic Wolf – Canis lupus arctos
  • Carnivores – Order Carnivora
  • Cats – Family Felidae
  • Eurasian Lynx – Lynx lynx
  • Giant Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca
  • Leopard – Panthera pardus
  • Meerkat – Suricata suricatta
  • Mustelids – Family Mustelidae
  • Panda – Ailuropoda melanoleuca
  • Polar Bear – Ursus maritimus
  • Tiger – Panthera tigris
  • Spectacled Bear – Tremarctos ornatus

Dugongs and Manatees

  • Manatees – Genus Trichechus


  • African Elephant – Loxodonta africana
  • Asiatic Elephant – Elephas maximus
  • Elephants – Order Proboscidea

Even-toed Ungulates

  • Even-Toed Ungulates – Order Artiodactyla


  • Koala – Phascolarctos cinereus

Odd-toed Ungulates

  • Black Rhinoceros – Diceros bicornis
  • Burchell’s Zebra – Equus burchellii
  • Giraffe – Giraffa camelopardalis
  • Odd-Toed Ungulates – Order Perissodactyla
  • Przewalski’s Wild Horse – Equus caballus przewalskii
  • Tapirs – Family Tapiridae


  • Aye-Aye – Daubentonia madagascariensis
  • Primates – Order Primates
  • Golden-Crowned Sifaka – Propithecus tattersalli
  • Gorilla – Gorilla gorilla

Rabbits, Hares and Pikas

  • Rabbits, Hares and Pikas – Order Lagomorpha


  • Black-Footed Ferret – Mustela nigripes

Seals and Sea Lions

  • Common seal – Phoca vitulina

Whales and Dolphins – Cetacea

  • Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin – Lagenorhynchus acutus
  • Blue Whale – Balaenoptera musculus
  • Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus
  • Cetaceans – Order Cetacea
  • Common Dolphin – Delphinus delphis
  • Dusky Dolphin – Lagenorhynchus obscurus
  • Gray Whale – Eschrichtius robustus
  • Irrawaddy Dolphin – Orcaella brevirostris
  • Northern Bottlenose Whale – Hyperoodon ampullatus
  • Orca – Orcinus orca
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List of Mammals Sorted by Scientific Names

List of Mammals Sorted by Scientific Names


  • Ailuropoda melanoleuca – Giant Panda
  • Artiodactyla – Even-Toed Ungulates


  • Balaenoptera musculus – Blue Whale


  • Canis lupus arctos – Arctic Wolf
  • Carnivora – Carnivores
  • Cetacea – Cetaceans
  • Chiroptera – Bats


  • Dasypus novemcinctus – Nine-Banded Armadillo
  • Daubentonia madagascariensis – Aye-Aye
  • Delphinus delphis – Common Dolphin
  • Diceros bicornis – Black Rhinoceros


  • Elephas maximus – Asiatic Elephant
  • Equus burchellii – Burchell’s Zebra
  • Equus caballus przewalskii – Przewalski’s Wild Horse
  • Eschrichtius robustus – Gray Whale


  • Felidae – Cats


  • Giraffa camelopardalis – Giraffe
  • Gorilla gorilla – Gorilla


  • Hyperoodon ampullatus – Northern Bottlenose Whale


  • Lagenorhynchus acutus – Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin
  • Lagenorhynchus obscurus – Dusky Dolphin
  • Lagomorpha – Hares, Rabbits, and Pikas
  • Loxodonta africana – African Elephant
  • Lynx lynx – Eurasian Lynx


  • Mammalia – Mammals
  • Mustela nigripes – Black-Footed Ferret
  • Mustelidae – Mustelids
  • Myrmecophaga tridactyla – Giant Anteater


  • Orcaella brevirostris – Irrawaddy Dolphin
  • Orcinus orca – Orca


  • Panthera pardus – Leopard
  • Panthera tigris – Tiger
  • Perissodactyla – Odd-Toed Ungulates
  • Phascolarctos cinereus – Koala
  • Phoca vitulina – Common seal
  • Primates – Primates
  • Proboscidea – Elephants
  • Propithecus tattersalli – Golden-Crowned Sifaka
  • Pteropus rodricensis – Rodriguez Flying Fox


  • Suricata suricatta – Meerkat


  • Tamandua tetradactyla – Southern Tamandua
  • Tapiridae – Tapirs
  • Tremarctos ornatus – Spectacled Bear
  • Trichechus – Manatees
  • Tursiops truncatus – Bottlenose Dolphin


  • Ursus americanus – American Black Bear
  • Ursus maritimus – Polar Bear


  • Xenarthra – Xenarthrans
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List of Compound Words, Compound Words List

List of Compound Words, Compound Words List

  1. afternoon
  2. airport
  3. armchair
  4. background
  5. bathroom
  6. bedroom
  7. bedtime
  8. bookcase
  9. bookmark
  10. brainstorm
  11. breakfast
  12. bulldozer
  13. butterfly
  14. cannot
  15. cupboard
  16. cupcake
  17. daylight
  18. dishwasher
  19. downstairs
  20. driveway
  21. earphone
  22. earring
  23. earthquake
  24. everything
  25. eyeball
  26. eyelash
  27. fingernail
  28. fireman
  29. fishbowl
  30. football
  31. footpath
  32. forecast
  33. forget
  34. fortnight
  35. fourteen
  36. freeway
  37. gingerbread
  38. goalkeeper
  39. goldfish
  40. grandfather
  41. grandmother
  42. grapefruit
  43. grasshopper
  44. hairbrush
  45. haircut
  46. hairdresser
  47. hallway
  48. handbag
  49. handwriting
  50. hardware
  51. heartbeat
  52. hedgehog
  53. herself
  54. highway
  55. homework
  56. hopscotch
  57. horseshoe
  58. however
  59. iceberg
  60. income
  61. indoors
  62. inside
  63. itself
  64. jellybean
  65. jellyfish
  66. jigsaw
  67. keyboard
  68. kneecap
  69. ladybug
  70. leapfrog
  71. leftovers
  72. lifesaver
  73. lighthouse
  74. lipstick
  75. lookout
  76. mailbox
  77. masterpiece
  78. maybe
  79. meantime
  80. motorcycle
  81. neighbourhood
  82. newsletter
  83. newspaper
  84. nobody
  85. notebook
  86. nothing
  87. nowhere
  88. otherwise
  89. ourselves
  90. outcome
  91. outdoor
  92. outline
  93. outside
  94. overhead
  95. overlap
  96. overnight
  97. overseas
  98. pancake
  99. paperwork
  100. password
  101. peppermint
  102. piggyback
  103. pineapple
  104. playground
  105. policeman
  106. popcorn
  107. postcard
  108. railway
  109. railway
  110. rainbow
  111. raincoat
  112. rattlesnake
  113. roundabout
  114. sailboat
  115. sandpaper
  116. saucepan
  117. scarecrow
  118. scrapbook
  119. screwdriver
  120. seafood
  121. seashell
  122. seaside
  123. seaweed
  124. shipwreck
  125. shoelace
  126. shopkeeper
  127. skateboard
  128. snowball
  129. somebody
  130. someday
  131. somehow
  132. something
  133. sometime
  134. sometimes
  135. somewhere
  136. spaceman
  137. spaceship
  138. spotlight
  139. standby
  140. starfish
  141. strawberry
  142. suitcase
  143. sunburn
  144. Sunday
  145. sunflower
  146. sunglasses
  147. sunlight
  148. sunshine
  149. supermarket
  150. surfboard
  151. tablecloth
  152. tablespoon
  153. teammate
  154. teapot
  155. teaspoon
  156. timetable
  157. today
  158. toenail
  159. toolbox
  160. toothpaste
  161. toothpick
  162. underground
  163. understand
  164. underwear
  165. upgrade
  166. upset
  167. upstairs
  168. watermelon
  169. website
  170. weekend
  171. wheelbarrow
  172. wheelchair
  173. whiteboard
  174. wildlife
  175. without
  176. without
  177. workbook
  178. yourself
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List of Most Effective Qualities, Most Effective Qualities List

List of Most Effective Qualities, Most Effective Qualities List

Following is the complete list to describe Most Effective Qualities

  1. Honest
  2. Assertive
  3. Attentive
  4. Direct
  5. Broad-minded
  6. Committed
  7. Conscientious
  8. Dynamic
  9. Hard Worker
  10. Persistent
  11. Mature
  12. Methodical
  13. Motivated
  14. Objective
  15. Tenacious
  16. Sociable
  17. Friendly
  18. Realistic
  19. Reliable
  20. Resourceful
  21. Respectful
  22. Responsible
  23. Creative
  24. Confident
  25. Traditional
  26. Trustworthy
  27. Unconventional
  28. Unique
  29. Ecclectic
  30. Optimistic
  31. Accomplished
  32. Adept
  33. Analytical
  34. Articulate
  35. Artistic
  36. Self Disciplined
  37. Contraversial
  38. Individual
  39. Tolerant
  40. Naive
  41. Green
  42. Unselfish
  43. Sophisticated
  44. Stable
  45. Strong
  46. Successful
  47. Tactful
  48. Talented
  49. Team Player
  50. Fun
  51. Intelligent
  52. Changeable
  53. Passionate
  54. Intense
  55. Intuitive
  56. Upbeat
  57. Vibrant
  58. Funny
  59. Constructive
  60. Customer-oriented
  61. Dependable
  62. Direct
  63. Loyal



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List of words to describe positive qualities in Yourself, List of Positive Qualities

List of words to describe positive qualities in Yourself, List of Positive Qualities

Following is the complete list of Positive Qualities

  1. Inventive
  2. Exciting
  3. Thoughtful
  4. Powerful
  5. Practical
  6. Proactive
  7. Productive
  8. Professional
  9. Quality
  10. Quick
  11. Balanced
  12. Achiever
  13. Knowledgeable
  14. Leader
  15. Literate
  16. Logical
  17. Initiator
  18. Original
  19. Outgoing
  20. Particular
  21. Patient
  22. Active
  23. Positive
  24. Consistent
  25. Compassionate
  26. Incredible
  27. Independent
  28. With Integrity
  29. Mediator
  30. Emotional
  31. Cheerful
  32. Forgiving
  33. Sensuous
  34. Generous
  35. Sporty
  36. Devoted
  37. Candid
  38. Rebellious
  39. Cooperative
  40. Industrious
  41. Interesting
  42. Racy
  43. Meditative
  44. Understanding
  45. Quirky
  46. Quixotic
  47. Competitive
  48. Political
  49. Social Consciousness
  50. Modest
  51. Courageous
  52. Enthusiastic
  53. Enterprising
  54. Entrepreneurial
  55. Facilitator
  56. Focused
  57. Genuine
  58. Open Minded
  59. Wise
  60. Sensitive
  61. Sense of Humor
  62. Sensible
  63. Sincere
  64. Skilled
  65. Solid
  66. Communicative
  67. Helpful
  68. Fast
  69. Responsible
  70. Results-driven
  71. Results-oriented
  72. Self-reliant
  73. Organised
  74. Knowledgeable
  75. Logical
  76. Personable
  77. Pleasant
  78. Flexible
  79. Adaptable
  80. Persuasive
  81. Perceptive
  82. Insightful
  83. Trustworthy
  84. Easy going
  85. Good listener
  86. Imaginative
  87. Warm
  88. Ambitious
  89. Diplomatic
  90. Curious
  91. Leader
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Complete List of Mostly Confused Words, Confused Words List

Complete List of Mostly Confused Words, Confused Words List

• A •
a lot A lot is two words meaning “much”: A lot of bologna was left over from the party.
a while A while is two words meaning “a short period of time”: I will meet you in a while.
a A is an indefinite article to be used before nouns beginning with a consonant: a photograph, a tree, a horse.
an An is to be used before nouns beginning with a vowel (or vowel sound): an apple, an hour, an elephant.
and And is a conjunction used between nouns in a list: A blanket and picnic basket are needed for the afternoon.
accede Accede means “to agree or allow”: Hiram Cheaply finallyacceded to accepting the presidency of the company.
exceed Exceed means “to go beyond, to surpass”: The amount of alcohol in his blood exceeded the previous record.
accept Accept means “to take willingly”: Miss Deeds accepted the cup of hot tea even without a saucer.
except Except is a preposition meaning “excluding”: Everyone was disappointed with the party except Ida Goodtime.
adapt Adapt means “to adjust”: Minnie Miles quickly adapted to living away from home.
adept Adept means “skilled”: Lucille is adept at speaking languages.
adopt Adopt means to “accept as your own”: It was difficult to adopt only one puppy from the animal shelter.
adverse Adverse means “unfavorable, hostile”: Those driving in adverse winter conditions may be putting themselves at risk.
averse Averse means “unwilling or repelled”: She was immediately averse to the idea.
advice Advice is a noun meaning “an opinion given with the intention of helping”: My mother still gives me advice even though I’m 40 years old.
advise Advise is a verb meaning “to give counsel or advice”: The meteorologist advised listeners to stay indoors because of the extremely cold temperatures.
affect Affect is most often used as a verb meaning “to influence”: The president’s speech affected his views of the upcoming election.
effect The verb effect means “to cause”: Batting her eyes so flirtatiously effected a strong desire in Rathbone to embrace Mirabelle.
aid Aid is help or assistance given: Every Christmas the community gives aid to those less fortunate.
aide An aide is a person who helps: Frieda Gogh worked five years as a teacher’s aide.
airs Airs refers to snobbish and artificial behavior: Portia Radclyffe put on airs at the fine dinner party just because she had a few diamonds.
heirs Heirs are people who, because they are family, will inherit an estate or title.
all right All right is a phrase meaning “everything is right”: Is all right here?
alright Alright is a single word meaning “OK”: Is everything alright here?
all together All together is applied to people or things that are being treated as a whole: We always had fun when we were all together. To double check this usage, try separating the two words: We all had fun when were together.
altogether Altogether is an adverb that means “completely or totally”: Using a flashlight in bed is an altogether new approach to reading.
all ways All ways means “by every means or method”: Dirk tried all ways to navigate the storm.
always Always means “forever”: Sue St. Marie always responded calmly during emergency situations.
allude Allude means “to suggest indirectly”: Leticia can’t speak to her husband without alluding to his affair with Martha Snodgrass.
elude Elude means “to dodge or escape”: Serious relationships always seemed to elude him.
allusion An allusion is a subtle reference or hint: Rita Book made an allusion to the most recent novel she read in our conversation yesterday.
illusion An illusion is a deception, mirage, or a wild idea: The teacher said she had no illusions about how much work teaching demands.
almost Almost means “nearly all”: Almost all my friends have graduated from college by now.
most Most is superlative of more, meaning “the greatest or to the highest degree”: Chuck is the most computer savvy guy I know, or Chuck cooked a most delicious supper.
aloud Aloud means “speaking so that someone else can hear you”: Read this paragraph aloud.
allowed Allowed means “having permission”: His boss allowed him to take the weekend off.
already, all ready Already is an adverb that indicates an action is completed by a certain time: Herschel had already finished that whole pie.
All ready means “everything is completely prepared”: The children were all ready and bundled up warmly to go caroling on the snowy evening.
alternately Alternately means “taking turns”: We paddled alternately so neither of us would get too tired.
alternatively Alternatively means “as an option”: Instead of going by train, we could have gone alternatively by car.
ambiguous Ambiguous is describes a phrase or act with more than one meaning, or one that is unclear: The ending of the short story is ambiguous; we don’t know if he died or continue his journey.
ambivalent Ambivalent means “uncertainty and having conflicting attitudes and feelings”: He was ambivalent as to which candidate to vote for.
amiable Amiable refers to a person who is friendly, good-natured, and pleasant: Susan was very amiable and liked immediately.
amicable Amicable means “friendly and peaceable”, and is used to describe agreements or relationships between groups or people: After years of disagreement, the two countries came to an amicable agreement.
among Among is used for three or more: Shirley had to choose among three universities she might attend.
between Between is used for two things: I couldn’t decide between blue and green.
amoral Amoral means “having no principles at all, good or bad”: Percy is totally amoral; he is either helping others or helping himself at their expense.
immoral Immoral means “bad, lacking good principles”: Everything his brother does harms others whether it benefits him or not.
amount Amount is used with uncountable and abstract nouns: a large amount of money, amount of work, amount of happiness or amount of dirt.
number Number is used with countable and concrete plural expressions: a number of people, a number of attempts, a number of novels, a number of trials.
amused Amused is when something is entertaining: The children were amused by watching the kittens play.
bemused Bemused means “bewildered” or “lost in thought”: George was bemused by the unexpected ending to the movie.
annual Annual means “yearly”: We must pay an annual tax.
annul Annul means “to make void or invalid”: They want to annul the marriage.
any one Any one means “any one person”: Any one of you may go, but not all of you.
anyone Anyone means “anybody, any person at all”: Anyone can chew gum and walk at the same time.
anyway Anywayanywhere, and nowhere are the correct forms.
apart Apart is an adverb meaning “in pieces”: My plan for my vacation fell apart.
a part A part is a noun meaning “one section of”: A part of my heart left when he did.
appraise Appraise is to assess or estimate the worth of: to appraise a diamond.
apprise Apprise is to inform or notify: the officer apprised us of our rights.
arcane Arcane refers to things known and understood by few people: Amanda Lynn teaches arcane theories of modern music at the college.
archaic Archaic refers to things very, very old and outdated: The Oxford English Dictionary contains many words that are archaic.
as As may be used as a conjunction that introduce dependent clauses: George talks as his father does. Informally, it may also be used as a preposition in comparative constructions like: Jean-Claude is as forgetful as me (or as I am).
like Like is a preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun: George looks like his mother. It may also be used as an adjective meaning “similar”: George and I have like minds.
ascent Ascent is an upward movement: Leo’s ascent to the presidency of the company came slowly.
assent Assent means “to agree to”: Greta could not begin the project unless management assented.
ascetic An ascetic is a person who renounces all material comforts, often for religious devotion: the young man lead his ascetic lifestyle despite his parents’ plans for him. It can also be used as an adjective: Ethan Asia led an ascetic lifestyle.
aesthetic Aesthetic refers to the philosophy of beauty or the pleasing qualities of something: The statuette Leander created was lacking in aesthetic qualities.
ascribe Ascribe means “to attribute to”: She ascribed her feelings of jealousy to insecurity.
describe Describe means “to show what something is by drawing a picture with words”: Describe in detail what the man looked like.
aspersion Aspersion is slander, a damaging remark: The campaign was filled with one aspersion after another.
dispersion Dispersion is the act of scattering: The dispersion of seeds was irregular because he sowed the seeds by hand.
assent See ascent, assent.
assistance Assistance is help or aid: the nurses gave assistance to the patients.
assistants Assistants are more than one assistant, a person who gives help: the emergency room assistants were ready to help anyone who came through the door. (See also patience and patients.)
assure Assure means “to guarantee”: He assured her it was a quality item.
ensure Ensure means “to make sure by double checking”: The custodian ensured the doors to the school were locked at night.
insure Insure means “to provide insurance”: It is wise to insure your house against flood, fire, or theft.
auger An auger is a tool used for digging holes: If you want to ice fish, you need to first drill a hole in the ice with an auger.
augur Augur means “to predict, forecast”: Leroy’s inheritance augured happiness for him in the future.
• B •
bad Bad is an adjective used after verbs like am, feel, is, seem, and become: They felt bad. (Using badly here would mean that their skill at feeling is poor).
badly Badly is an adverb used after other verbs: They played badly. Badly can also mean “greatly”: They needed food badly.
baited Baited usually refers to traps: Baiting deer in order to hunt them is illegal in most states.
bated Bated is seldom used but means “reduced, abated”: Jessica bated her pace to let her running mate catch up.
bare Bare means “naked”: Walking in grass with bare feet is refreshing.
bear Bear is the animal, and also means “to carry”: Sherman must bear the burden of flunking math twice.
bazaar Bazaar is an exhibition, market, or fair: The Saturday morning bazaar is worth seeing even if you buy nothing.
bizarre Bizarre means “weird and unworldly”: Barry told us a bizarre story last night.
belief Belief is a noun: He had strong beliefs.
believe Believe is a verb: She believes she can do anything.
beside Beside means “next to”: Place the dishes beside the sink.
besides Besides is an adverb or preposition that means “also, additionally”: I would enjoy going on a vacation besides.
better Had better is the correct form, used when giving advice that hints at an undesirable consequence if not followed: You had better go to the doctor. Don’t leave out have.
had better
between See among, between.
biannual Biannual is twice in one year: My trip to the dentist is a biannual event.
biennial Biennial means “every two years”: These flowers are biennial; they bloom every two years.
bimonthly Bimonthly means “every two months”: We order from the co-op bimonthly.
semimonthly Semimonthly means “twice a month (biweekly)”: We have our house cleaned semimonthly.
blithe Blithe, an adjective, means “lighthearted and carefree”: A blithe mood overcomes us in the spring.
lithe Lithe is also an adjective but it means “flexible, graceful, and supple”: The lithe movements of the yoga instructor impressed us all.
blonde Blonde describes women: Brunettes have just as much fun as blondes (blonde women).
blond Blond describes men: Sean was not a natural blond. This distinction is not necessary though: blond is now generally accepted for both men and women.
board Board means a few things. One is “a long sheet of wood”: Hiram had to cut the board to make the shelves. It also means “a committee”: The board of directors met to decide the fate of the school. Lastly, it can mean “to get onto”: She boarded the ship.
bored Bored means “not interested”: She is bored by the dry lecture.
bore bore is a boring or tiresome person or thing: Jasper is such a bore when he talks about his cats!
boar boar is a male pig: Wild boars abound in this forest.
boor boor is an unrefined, vulgar person: What a boor Guy was to get drunk at the wedding and embarrass everyone.
born Born is newly coming into life: A child was born at 12:01 New Year’s day.
borne Borne means “carried”: All gossip is borne by an ill wind.
borrow Borrow is to receive something from someone temporarily: to borrow a book and then return it.
lend Lend is a verb that mean “to temporarily give something to someone”: Henry will lend (or loan) Francine a book.
loan Loan is a noun: a bank loan. Loan is often used in American English as a verb meaning “to lend”: Loan me a book, please.
braise Braise means “to cook (usually meat) slowly in liquid”: Braised meat is usually tender.
braze To braze is to solder or create with metals such as bronze: Shirley brazed a statue of a famous Civil War leader.
brake Brake means “to stop”: You should brake slowly on ice.
break Break means “to smash”: To break a mirror brings seven years of worse luck than you are having now.
breath Breath is a noun meaning “the air pulled into the lungs”: Take a deep breath and relax.
breathe Breathe, with an E on the end, is a verb: Just breathe deeply and calm down.
bridal Bridal has to do a bride and her wedding: June May threw her bridal bouquet to the screaming crowd of single women.
bridle bridle is a halter or restraint, such as a horse bridle: Old Frosty didn’t like the bridle over his head.
by By is a preposition meaning “next to”: Park the car by the house.
buy Buy means “purchase”: Grandpa buys an ice cream cone every Sunday afternoon.
bye Bye means “farewell or good-bye”: Bye, now; I’ll see you later.
• C •
can’t hardly This expression is a nonstandard double negative (hardly is considered negative), so avoid it. It is better to say can hardly: I can hardly hear you over the noise of the party!Hardly.
canvas Canvas is cloth or fabric: a canvas bag to bring to the beach.
canvass Canvass means “to conduct a survey or examine thoroughly”, or “to seek votes”: She canvassed all the stores before she found the right dress.
capital capital is where the seat of government is: The capital of the United States is Washington DC. Capital can also mean “wealth” or “a large letter”.
capitol The Capitol (usually capitalized) is the actual building in which the government and legislature meets: We will travel to the Capitol this weekend.
censor Censor is to prohibit free expression: The principal censored all references to smoking in school publications.
sensor sensor is something that interprets stimulation: The lights are turned on by a movement sensor.
censure Censure is rebuke, harsh criticism: Morty Skustin was severely censured for putting the frog in the water cooler.
cite Cite means “to quote or mention”: He cited a famous theorist in his speech.
site Site is a noun meaning “a place”: At which site will we stage the party?
sight Sight is a noun meaning “view”: The sight of the New York City skyline is spectacular.
climactic Climactic refers to the peak: Wendell sneezed right at the climactic moment of a movie.
climatic Climatic refers to the climate and weather: New Monia is known for its dramatic climatic changes.
coarse Coarse is an adjective meaning “rough, big-grained, not fine”: We need to use coarse sandpaper to remove the paint from this wood.
course Course is a noun referring to a direction (the course of a ship) or a series of lectures on one subject (a history course in college): The poetry course Stu deBaker took in colldge changed the course of his life.
collaborate Collaborate means “to work together”: Collaborate with the people on your team.
corroborate Corroborate means “to support with evidence” or “prove true”: The testimony was corroborated with evidence of his innocence.
complement Complement means “to supplement” or “make complete”: Their two personalities complement each other.
compliment Compliment means “to praise or congratulate”: She received a compliment on her sense of fashion.
compose Compose means to “make up” and is often used in the passive voice: The class is composed of students of several nationalities.
comprise Comprise means “have, consist of, or include”: Students of several nationalities comprise the class. A rule to remember would be that the whole comprises its parts, and the parts compose the whole.
concurrent Concurrent simultaneous or happening at the same time as something else: concurrent blizzards in three different states.
consecutive Consecutive means “successive or one after another”: The state had three consecutive blizzards that month.
conform Conform means “to be similar to”: Some schools conform their students by using uniforms.
confirm Confirm is to make sure or double check: to confirm a flight reservation.
congenial Congenial describes something likeable, suitable to taste: They enjoy the congenial surroundings in their home.
congenital Congenital refers to a condition present at birth because of heredity: Raymond has a congenital heart defect.
connote Connote means to “imply or suggest”: ‘Home’ connotes warmth and safety.
denote Denote means to “indicate specifically, to mean”: ‘Home’ denotes the place where you live.
conscience Conscience is the feeling or knowledge of right and wrong: My conscience wouldn’t allow me to compete with someone so much weaker than me.
conscious Conscious refers to being awake and aware: Molly Coddle was still conscious after banging her head on the headboard.
continual Continual means “repeated with breaks in between”: We need continual rain throughout the summer for crops to grow.
continuous Continuous means “without stopping”: The continuous drumming of the rain on the windows put Herman to sleep.
convince Convince is to cause another to feel sure or believe something to be true: Well, Argyle Greenpasture has convinced me that aliens do exist.
persuade Persuade is to talk someone into doing something: Percy persuaded me to help him wash his car.
co-operation Co-operation means “working together”: I would like to thank you for your cooperation with us on the project.
corporation corporation is a large company: Presidents of large corporations receive tens of millions of dollars in salary.
corps Corps (pronounced ‘core’) is an organization of people dedicated to a single goal: Lucinda joined the Peace Corps after college.
core core is the center of a fruit containing seeds: Bartholomew eats apples, core and all.
corpse corpse is a dead body: The corpse of Danny’s dog was lovingly laid to rest in the back yard.
correspondence Correspondence is agreement or written communication such as letters or news articles: Phil and Rachel continued their correspondence for years.
correspondents Correspondents are those who write this communication: Rhoda Lott has lived abroad as a news correspondent for several years.
could not care less This expression is often confusing for English language learners. It is always used with a negative and means that you really don’t care at all: Since she was sick, Mona could not care less about doing her homework, or Mona could not care less which color sweater she wore.
council council is a group of people called together to meet on an issue: The school board council meets every Thursday evening.
counsel Counsel is advice: I always go to Clyde for counsel on the tough decision in my life.
consul consul is a diplomat appointed to protect the citizens and commercial interests of one country in another: If you need help starting a business in France, talk to the US consul in Paris.
creak Creak can be the noun or verb for a squeak or groan: The creak of the floorboards alerted Nell that Bernard was sneaking up on her.
creek creek is a small stream: The kids loved to play in the creek on a hot summer day.
credible Credible means “believable or reliable”: There is no credible evidence that it was I who broke the lamp.
creditable Creditable means “worthy of praise or respect”: I couldn’t have broken the lamp because I have a creditable alibi.
criteria Criterion is singular: There is only one criterion for this job.
criterion Criteria is plural: Several criteria need to be met in order for us to move forward.
custom custom is a cultural tradition: It is a custom in Japan to remove your shoes when entering a home.
costume costume is the outfit worn to represent a particular time, event, or culture: What is your costume for Halloween going to be?
• D •
dairy dairy is a farm where milk and milk products are produced: Madeleine grew up on a dairy and knows how to churn butter.
diary diary is the daily journal kept: Rhoda Book writes in her diary for two hours every night.
deduction Deduction is drawing a general principle from particular facts or instances: I’ve seen hundreds of robins and they all have red breasts. (General principle-all robins have red breasts. )
induction Induction is the explanation of particular facts or instances from a general principle: That bird must be a robin because it has a red breast. (General principle-all robins have red breasts. )
denote See connote, denote.
describe See ascribe, describe.
desert Desert means “to abandon” (and can also be a noun, meaning “a wasteland”): Cooley deserted his family when they all got tattoos and lip piercings.
dessert Dessert is the sweet course of a meal: The whole family wanted to have cake for dessert.
device device is an instrument used to perform a task: This device will peel apples for you.
devise Devise is to create or invent: They will devise a scheme to continue the business.
diary See dairy, diary.
divers Divers means “several”: You can take that statement in divers ways.
diverse Diverse means “different or varied”: There are many diverse cultures in the world.
different from Different from is the standard usage when comparing two things: Suzie’s sweater is different from Mary’s. Don’t say, “Different than something else.”
different than
discreet Discreet means “modest and prudent”: Please be discreet about the surprise party, we don’t want her to find out.
discrete Discrete means “separate and distinct”: Even though they were married, they kept their money in two discrete accounts.
disinterested Disinterested is an adjective that means “unbiased or impartial”: Since she had nothing at stake, she was a disinterested party in the matter.
uninterested Uninterested means “not interested”: Anita Job was just uninterested in the offer.
dispersion See aspersion, dispersion.
• E •
e. g. e. g. is a Latin abbreviation meaning “for example”: Lucille doesn’t like fruit, e.g. pears, apples, grapes, and bananas.
i. e. i. e. is a Latin abbreviation meaning “that is (to say)”: Myrtle had to leave the room, i.e. she had to go to the bathroom.
each other Use each other when only two objects are involved: The twins love each other.
one another Use one another in referring to more than two objects: The triplets all love one another.
each These are singular distributive pronouns; use them with a singular verb. Each refers to a single individual in a group: Each of us voted differently.
every Every refers to all the members of a group inclusively: Every one of us voted the same.
effect See affect, effect.
elicit Elicit is a verb that means “to draw out”: The teacher had trouble eliciting responses from the students.
illicit Illicit is an adjective meaning “illegal or illegitimate”: Illicit drugs or illicit behavior may help you enter jail.
elude See allude, elude.
emigrant An emigrant is a person who leaves his native country to settle in another: The emigrants left everything behind in search of something more.
immigrant An immigrant refers is person who moves to a new country: Many immigrants settle in this country every year.
emigrate Emigrate from means “to leave one’s country”: Frances emigrated to the US.
immigrate Immigrate to means “to settle in another country”: Her family immigrated to the US four generations ago.
eminent Eminent means “of high rank, outstanding, or prestigious”: An eminent author came to read at the university.
emanant Emanant means “sending or issuing forth”: Emanant thoughts like those should be kept to yourself.
imminent Imminent means “close to happening or near”: Everyone waited anxiously for an imminent storm predicted to arrive shortly.
enervate Innervate means “to supply with nerves or vitality”: The therapist innervated the shoulders with massage.
innervate Enervate is to weaken or destroy the vitality of: The negative attitude enervated her enthusiasm.
entomology Entomology refers to the study of insects: Donald couldn’t be afraid of bugs if he wanted to get a degree in entomology.
etymology Etymology is the study of the history of words and where they come from: The etymology of mortify goes back to Latin mortuus “dead”. is nice.
etc. Etc. is Latin for et cetera and means “and so on”: You need to bring plates, knives, forks, spoons, etc. to the table. It is a good idea, however, to just finish the list, not letting it end with etc. But if you must, use a phrase like “and so on”, “and so forth”.
ethereal Ethereal describes something that is light, airy, and intangible: Ethereal clouds hovered above; Everything in the ballroom looked ethereal.
ephemeral Ephemeral refers to anything lasting for a short period: Truth can be an ephemeral thing; A creek can be ephemeral if it disappears in the middle of summer.
everyone Everyone means “each person”: Everyone in the room must leave immediately.
every one Every one refers to each thing or person individually: Felice put every one of the eggs in the basket.
exceed See accede, exceed.
except See accept, except.
explicit Explicit means “clear and direct”: Please give me explicit directions.
implicit Implicit means “indirectly, with some parts understood”: They implicitly agreed to never talk on the subject again.
• F •
fair fair is an exhibition of farm produce usually with a collection of rides and attractions: Every year our family goes to the state fair.
fare fare is the fee you pay to ride public transportation: The fare to ride the bus is affordable in our town.
farther Farther has to do with distance: How much farther is it to Poughkeepsie?
further Further means “additional” or “more”: Please give me further information about the best route to Poughkeepsie.
faze Faze is to distress or disturb: The scrutiny of the media didn’t faze Sharon.
phase phase is a period of development or a period of time in a cycle of events: Stuart went through a phase when all he did was eat hot dogs.
few Few is used when talking about things that can be counted: Lureen has a few ideas; also a few keys, few clouds, few values, few diseases.
less Less is used when talking about things that can’t be counted: Lureen shows less perseverance than we expected; also less distance, less pollution, less rain.
figuratively Figuratively refers to metaphoric speech, not realistic or exact: To say, “Horace died laughing,” is to speak figuratively.
literally Literally refers to realistic or exact speech: If Horace literally died laughing, he must be buried (but it was not such a bad way to go).
flammable These two words both mean “easily set on fire”: a highly flammable/inflammable substance. However, flammable is now used as a warning to avoid misinterpreting the prefix in-as negation.
flare Flare is to increase greatly, burn brightly, or something that provides a bright flame: The fire in the grill flared brightly when Eva tossed gasoline on it.
flair Flair refers to a sense of style or a talent: Dutch Masters has a flair for entertaining a group of men.
flaunt To flaunt means “to show off”: Maud Lynn Dresser likes to flaunt her jewels at parties.
flout To flout means “to show scorn or contempt for”: Larry flouts the speed limit in every state when it suits his schedule.
forbear Forbear means “to refrain from”: The children simply could not forbear laughing in the library.
forebear forebear is an ancestor or forefather: Our forebears who founded this country centuries ago.
foreword foreword is a short introduction at the beginning of a book usually written by someone other than the author: The foreword of the book explains how its thesis fits in with current thinking.
forward Forward is an adverb indicating movement ahead or toward the front: Priscilla moves forward slowly in the line at the grocery store.
forth Forth means “forward, from this point”: Barry moved forth without looking back.
fourth Fourth indicates an object that comes between No. 3 and No. 5: Dustin Moppet just finished cleaning the fourth floor.
foul Foul can means “offensive, rotten, or unfavorable”: Foul language, foul meat, and foul weather are unacceptable at a picnic.
fowl Fowl refers to birds, especially domestic ones: Chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys are considered fowl.
found Found is the past tense of find: I found my glasses only after I had stepped on them!
founded Founded is past tense of the verb found, meaning “to set up or establish”: My ancestors were the ones who founded this country.
founder Founder means “to run aground”: The boat foundered on a shoal in the storm.
flounder Flounder means “to move clumsily, with difficulty” or “to blunder”: Gladys Friday is floundering in college.
• G •
gibe Gibe means “to taunt, jeer, make fun of”: His classmates gibed Billy Earl for wearing his underwear over his clothes.
gybe Gybe means “to swing a fore-and-aft sail from one side of a sailboat to the other to change course”: When the wind shifted, Felix gybed when he should have tacked.
jibe Jibe refers to being in agreement: Our views on everything from baseball to Socrates seem to jibe.
gorilla gorilla is a large ape: Gorillas live in the African tropical forest.
guerrilla guerrilla is a member of irregular military that uses surprise attacks on its enemy: Guerrilla warfare uses tactics such as espionage, sabotage, and ambush.
• H •
hail Hail means “to greet or to come from”: She hails from California. Hail also means “balls of ice”: Hail damaged the crops.
hale Hale means “sound or healthy”: Minnie Miles is hale and hearty enough to run five miles daily.
hanged Hanged is past tense of hang in the sense of executing someone by using a rope around the neck: Outlaws in the Old West were hanged when they could be caught.
hung Hung is the past tense of hang, but is used for things: Lyda Cain’s son never hung up his clothes. Just remember hanged is used for people (Yuck!), and hung is used for other things.
hardly This is a word used in a negative sense meaning “barely”: Lyle could hardly keep his eyes open at the lecture by Rhoda Book.
herd herd is a group of animals: Nonnie saw a herd of cows in the pasture.
heard Heard is the past tense of hear: Zelda heard the bells ringing for the glorious leader who had recently died.
here Here refers to the place where you are: You should come here more often.
hear Hear is to listen with the ears: Am I speaking loud enough for you to hear me?
heroin Heroin is an illicit drug: Heroin is a very addicting substance.
heroine A heroine is a female hero in real life or in a story: Marge was treated like a heroine when she delivered the baby in a cab.
historic Historic refers to something in history that was important: The summit was a historic meeting between the countries.
historical Historical refers to anything in general history: The whole class had to dress in historical costumes for the play.
hoard Hoard means “to collect and keep for oneself”: Squirrels hoard acorns during the winter.
horde horde is a large group: Hordes of people go Christmas shopping the day after Thanksgiving.
hole hole is a gap or space: A moth made a hole in my sweater.
whole Whole means “complete”: Stu Beef ate the whole pizza himself!
home Home in is the correct phrase here is when referring to getting closer to a goal or target: The missile homed in electronically on the target.
hone Hone means “to sharpen”: Denise made a resolution to hone her piano playing skills.
• I •
i. e. See e. g., i. e.
e. g.
illicit See elicit, illicit.
illusion See allusion, illusion.
immemorial Immemorial refers to that which is beyond time, ancient: These artifacts have been here since time immemorial.
immortal Immortal describes things that live forever: The way Randolph drives, he must think that he is immortal.
immoral Immoral means “not nice, unethical, bad”: Stealing is immoral.
immoral See amoral, immoral.
immigrant See emigrant, immigrant.
immigrate See emigrate, immigrate.
imminent See eminent.
eminent, emanant
implicate, imply Implicate means “to closely link or connect”: The blood on his hands implicated him in the murder.
Imply means “to point to, or suggest indirectly”: The victim’s friend implied he thought he knew who the murderer was.
implicit See explicit, implicit.
imply Imply means “to suggest indirectly”: Her hesitation implied that her answer was no.
infer Infer means “to draw a conclusion from known facts”: He inferred that the answer was no from her hesitation.
in regard to Both of these mean “referring to”, but use one or the other: In regard to your proposal I have an idea, or: As regards your proposal, I have an idea. NOT in regards to!
as regards
inchoate Inchoate describes something in an early stage of development, and that is incomplete: Lucy’s plan remained inchoate and was developed no further.
incoherent Incoherent describes something that is lacking connection or order: Some even thought that Lucy’s plan was just a few incoherent thoughts that didn’t hang together.
incredible Incredible means “astonishing or difficult to grasp”: The incredible power of a tornado attracts storm chasers.
incredulous Incredulous means “skeptical and disbelieving”: She was incredulous about Fred’s interpretation of the event.
induction See deduction, induction.
innervate See enervate, innervate.
insure See assure, ensure, insure.
intolerable Intolerable refers to something unbearable: The heat during the summer of 2005 was intolerable.
intolerant Intolerant refers to a person who is unable to accept differences in opinion, habit, or belief: Maybelle is intolerant of anyone who chews with their mouth open.
irregardless Regardless is the correct word to use, meaning “without regard”: The young man left regardless of the warnings.
regardless Irregardless is a double negative that should be avoided.
its Its is the possessive form of it, like hers, his, and theirs: The dog licked its foot after stepping in maple syrup.
it’s It’s is short for ‘it is’, a contraction of those two words: “Well, I guess it’s [it is] time to wash the dog again.”
• J •
jibe See gibe, gybe, jibe.
• K •
kind of Avoid these expressions in the sense of “somewhat”, “rather” or “a little” (especially avoid reducing them to kinda and sorta). The pace of the baseball game was rather [not kind of] slow.
sort of
knew Knew is the past tense of know: She knew what she wanted to say but couldn’t say it.
new New means “never used”: I ordered a new custom car from the factory today.
• L •
latent Latent means “present but not visible or active”: Just because I’m not in bed doesn’t mean that I don’t have a latent virus.
patent Patent means “visible, active, or obvious”: The claim that I pinched Marilyn’s tush is a patent lie!
later Later means “afterward”: Come later than seven o’clock.
latter Latter means “the last of two things mentioned”: If I have to choose between brains or beauty, I’ll take the latter.
lay Lay is a transitive verb, which means it takes an object. It means “to set or put down flat”: Gwendolyn laid child in the crib, or Lay a book on the table, please. Its forms are lay, lays, laid, has laid, and is laying.
lie Lie is an intransitive verb, so it does not take an object. It means “to rest supine or remain in a certain place”: I have to lie down because I’m not feeling well, or I like to lie in the grass for hours. Its forms are lie, lies, lay, has lain, and is lying.
lead Lead can be a verb meaning “to guide, be in charge of”: Greg will lead a group this afternoon. It can also be a noun meaning “a type of metallic element”: Use a lead pencil to fill in your answer sheet.
led Led is the past tense of lead: Greg led the group this afternoon.
lend Lend is a verb that mean “to temporarily give something to someone”: Lucy will lend or loan Chuck her books any day.
loan loan is a noun meaning something borrowed: Most people get a bank loan to buy a house. Loan is also used in American English as a verb meaning “to lend”.
borrow Borrow is to receive something from someone temporarily: Can I borrow the book if I promise to return it tomorrow?
less See few, less.
lessen Lessen means “to decrease or make less”: She lessened the headache pain with aspirin.
lesson lesson is something you learn: A teacher might say, “Today’s lesson is about ancient Egypt.”
liable Liable means “legally responsible for or subject to”: Tom is liable to pay for the damage if he doesn’t prove his innocence.
libel Libel is a noun that means “a slanderous statement that damages another person’s reputation”: Bertrand was sued for libel for what he printed about Phil Anders.
lightening Lightening is a verb that means “to reduce the weight of”: My course load needs lightening if I am to complete this course successfully.
lightning Lightning refers to the electrical discharge in the sky: Fred captured the image of a bolt of lightning on film.
like See as, like.
literally See figuratively, literally.
lithe See blithe, lithe.
loathe Loathe is a verb meaning “to detest or dislike greatly”: Janice loathes animal cruelty.
loath Loath is an adjective meaning “reluctant, unwilling”: Lance was loath to ask for an extension on his term paper that semester.
loose Loose is not tight: A loose-fitting jacket was more suitable than a shawl.
lose Lose is to misplace and not be able to find: I often lose my bearings when entering a new city. Thank goodness I don’t lose my keys though!
• M •
manner Manner is a way of doing or behaving: Duane Pipes installed the plumbing in a workman-like manner.
manor manor is a house on an estate: The chauffeur drove slowly up to the manor.
mantel mantel is the shelf above a fireplace, or face of one: Matilda set several candles on the mantel.
mantle mantle is a cloak or blanket: Velma grabbed her mantle before heading out the door.
marital Marital refers to marriage: Bunny and Lance are having marital problems.
martial Martial refers to war or warriors: Bunny has a black belt in martial arts.
marshal marshal is an officer of highest ranking; it can mean “to arrange”: The marshal gave orders to the troops.
marshall Marshall is a verb meaning “to together”: Marshall marshaled enough strength to walk past the bar on his way home.
may be May be as two words means “might be”: Your reading glasses may be on the night stand.
maybe Maybe is one word that means “perhaps”: Maybe your reading glasses are on the night stand.
me Me is used as a simple object: Susan told my brother and me about her trip to Africa.
myself Myself is a reflexive and an emphatic pronoun: I talk to myself [reflexive] or you can do that yourself [emphatic].
meet Meet means “to get together or connect with someone, to encounter”: Elroy plans to meet a colleague for lunch.
mete Mete means “to distribute”: We had to mete out the last of the water when we were still 20 miles from civilization on our hiking trip.
meat Meat is flesh that may be eaten: Nathan is a vegetarian who doesn’t eat meat at all.
militate Militate means “to influence toward or against a change”: The banality of Rhoda Book’s stories militated against their becoming popular.
mitigate Mitigate means “to lessen, make easier, or bearable”: A cold compress on your leg will mitigate the swelling.
mordant Mordant is bitingly sarcastic: Everyone hated Raymond’s mordant comments.
trenchant Trenchant means “forceful and keen”: Raymond received trenchant criticism from everyone for his comments.
most See almost, most.
mute Mute means “having no sound or without speech”: He was struck mute by the horror of the events.
moot Moot as a noun is a public meeting; as an adjective, the more common usage, means “open to debate” in the UK and “not open to debate” in the US. It is most often used in the phrase moot point: When Walter walked in, the question of who was going to pick him up became moot.
• N •
no No means “the opposite of yes”: They all said no in response to the latest referendum.
know To know is to understand are realize: I don’t want to know how you got up the tree.
noisome Noisome means “disgusting, offensive, and potentially harmful”: A noisome smell arose from the garbage can.
noisy Noisy means “making a lot of sound or racket”: With so many children, it became a noisy day care center.
nonplussed Nonplussed is often misused in the sense of “calm and unbothered”. The actual meaning is “confused or bewildered”: She was nonplussed by her husband’s unusual behavior.
nowhere See anyway, anywhere, nowhere; anyways, anywheres, nowheres.
• O •
obeisance Obeisance is respect and homage paid someone: Farina greeted the queen with sincere obeisance.
obsequious Obsequiousness is submissiveness and an eagerness to obey: The obsequiousness of the waiter made them roll their eyes.
obtuse Obtuse means “lacking quickness of wit or sensitivity, dull, dense”: Brandon is so obtuse he doesn’t even know when he is being insulted.
abstruse Abstruse means “too difficult to understand for the average mind”: The professor presented an abstruse metaphysical concept that went over our heads.
one another See each other, one another.
each other
overdo Overdo is to exaggerate something: Marcy overdoes her makeup every morning and she ends up looking like a clown.
overdue Overdue indicates something that has missed its deadline: You must return these overdue books to the library immediately, or A visit to our grandparents is long overdue.
• P •
pamper To pamper is to coddle, or treat with indulgence: The only time my mom pampers me is when I’m sick.
pander To pander is to cater to the base needs of others, to sell out: Senator Throckmorton got elected by pandering to special interest groups.
passed Passed is the past tense of pass, to go by or move ahead of: The boys passed through town quickly.
past Past is a place in time that was before now: You would be wise to reflect on the past and learn from it.
pasture pasture is a place where farm animals graze: Al Falfa puts his cows out into the pasture every morning.
pastor pastor is a member of the clergy, a minister of a church: Noah Sarque is the pastor of the local Baptist Church.
patent See latent, patent.
patience Patience is the ability to remain calm even when dealing with someone or something difficult: The teacher showed infinite patience for the students struggling with the reading material. (See also assistance and assistants.)
patients Patients are people who are sick in a hospital: The nurse had several new patients to get to know that week.
peace Peace is a sense of calm and absence of war or hostility: We all hope for peace throughout the world.
piece piece is a part or segment of something: Helen Highwater lost a piece of her jewelry in church last Sunday.
peek To peek is to look quickly without someone knowing: The child peeked inside the gift.
pique To pique is to arouse or provoke: Muriel’s comment piqued Abner’s curiosity. Pique can also be used as a noun meaning “resentment”: Sedgewick felt a bit of pique at the association of his name with their real estate scheme.
peak peak is the highest point of something: Chastity decided not to drive to the top of Pike’s Peak during the peak summer vacation season.
peer To peer is to squint and gaze strongly at: Melvin had to peer through fog to keep the car on the highway.
pier peer is an equal: Farnsworth didn’t consider anyone his peer when it came to the game of tiddledy winks.
pier is a walkway that juts into a body of water for docking: to he docked his boat at the end of the pier.
penultimate Penultimate means “the next to the last (the ultimate)”: Little did Al Pacca know that the penultimate shrimp he ate was the one that gave him food poisoning.
ultimate Ultimate is the last or best: I found the ultimate gift for Gary this year.
perspective perspective is a view from a certain place or position or a mental outlook: The perspective from this building is spectacular, or Lydia Potts has a wonderful perspective on life considering the fact that she has 12 kids.
prospective Prospective is an adjective that means “possible, likely to happen”: We have several prospective opportunities before us.
persuade See convince, persuade.
phase See faze, phase.
piquant Piquant means “pleasantly tart or spicy”: This restaurant serves a piquant salsa that is absolutely delicious.
pique To pique is to arouse or provoke: Grunella piqued Vern’s curiosity with her question. (See also peek.)
plain Plain means “simple not showy” or “a large level region”: It was plain to see that Vanessa loved Conway, or Bowser’s farm was on a great plain where wheat grew well.
plane plane is a flat and level surface, a new level, or an airplane: To understand the equation of a plane surface in mathematics you have to reach a new plane of consciousness. Franklin landed the plane successfully.
portent portent is a noun meaning “an omen or prophetic sign of the future”: Ivan Oder took falling out of bed that morning as a portent of a greater disaster in the future.
potent Potent is an adjective meaning “strong and powerful”: Arnold was a potent man, even at seventy, but could not handle the potent martinis Bella Donna made.
pour To pour is to dispense liquid from one container into another: She poured some milk into the glass.
pore pore is to study or read intensely: Hilda pored over the materials nightly.
pore Pore also means “a small opening in skin through which moisture or air moves”: Pores are all over our bodies.
practical Practical refers to being easily used and put into practice: A Swiss Army knife has many practical uses.
practicable Practicable means “feasible or possible”: It is not always practicable for a busy person to use this tool.
precede The verb precede means “to come or go before, in front of”: The flower girl preceded the bride in the procession down the aisle.
proceed Proceed means “to move forward”: Both the flower girl and the bride proceeded down the aisle at the same time.
premise premise usually means “assumption”: Since the basic premise was wrong, all the conclusions based on it were wrong, too.
premises Premises are a house or building and the grounds around it: Smoking is not allowed on the premises.
presence Presence means “the state of being near”: April’s presence was comforting in Rod’s time of sorrow.
presents Presents are gifts: The greatest gift is to let someone give you a present.
principal principal is the head of a professional business or school: The principal of the middle school is a woman of principles.
principle principle is a belief: I avoid school principals as a matter of principle.
profit Profit is the money earned above the expense it took to complete the project: Ghislaine and Pierre made a $100,000 profit when they remodeled and sold their house.
prophet prophet is a person who can foretell the future and through which a divine presence speaks: Atheism is a non-prophet religion.
profligate Profligate is to be wasteful and extravagant: Esmeralda is so profligate that she spent the entire million dollars she won in the lottery in one year.
prolific Prolific means “abundant, fruitful, producing much”: John Grisham is a prolific writer.
• Q •
quiet Quiet means “without sound or mention of”: You are supposed to be quiet in hospitals and libraries.
quite Quite can mean either “completely or somewhat, rather”, depending on what you mean: I was quite alone that Saturday afternoon (completely) but the hours passed quite quickly (rather).
quote Quote is a verb meaning “to state the exact words someone else said”: The pastor quoted scripture from the Bible or Carmen quoted a famous psychologist in complaining to the boss.
quotation quotation is the actual statement being quoted: Gretchen read a quotation every day.
• R •
rain Rain is the water that falls from the sky: Dingwell didn’t have sense enough to come in out of the rain.
reign Reign is the rule of a king of queen: King Wilhelm reigned with an iron fist to keep peace in the land.
rein rein (usually plural, reins) are the straps of leather used to control and guide a horse: No matter how hard Reginald pulled on the reins, the horse would not slow down.
raise Raise means “to build or grow”: The farmer raises corn. The Amish will raise the walls of a building by noon.
raze Raze is to destroy: The school was razed and a new one built in its place.
real Real is a variant of really used in dialectal areas (like the Southern US) where adverbs are not distinguished from adjectives: She sings real good, in standard English is: She sings really well.
really Really is an intensifying adverb: Gwendolyn was really tired after playing outside all day.
reality Reality means “the perceived world as it is, the true situation”: She could not tell the difference between reality and fantasy.
realty Realty is land or real estate: Realty in large cities is markedly expensive.
rebate rebate is a discount from the manufacturer to the customer after a purchase has been made: The $600 computer cost only $69.43 after all the rebates.
refund refund is a full repayment to a dissatisfied customer: Mildred returned her girdle and demanded a full refund.
regimen Regimen is a systematic plan: Sylvia is undergoing a regimen for a healthier lifestyle.
regiment Regiment is a troop of soldiers: The army is made up of several regiments.
residence residence is where people live, the house or building: The mayor’s residence is located in the center of the city.
residents The residents are the people who live there: The residents of the community thinks the mayor’s residence is to luxurious.
respectable Respectable means “deserving respect or on good behavior”: Mother always told us to be respectable in public.
respectful Respectful refers to showing respect: Be respectful of the people around you, especially if they have sticks.
respective Respective means “individual and appropriate”: The summer camp kids were shown to their respective cabins.
respectfully Respectfully means “politely and with respect”: Mel Pew always dealt respectfully with each and every customer.
respectively Respectively refers to the order in which things are given: I gave Wallace and Linda blue and green socks, respectively, means that I gave Wallace blue socks and Linda green ones.
restive Restive means “impatient and nervous, restless”: Cory became restive once he knew the boss was going to call him into his office.
restful Restful means “full of rest, calm, quiet, and restorative”: A restful vacation in Indonesia was just what the doctored ordered.
retch To retch is to try and vomit: Furman retched several times after swallowing a bite of Lurleen’s liver pudding.
wretch wretch is a miserable or wicked person: I didn’t believe she could be such a wretch.
rifle Rifle means to search with the intention of stealing or taking: The mugger rifled Clarissa’s purse looking for cash.
riffle To riffle means “to shuffle or flip quickly through papers”: Bill riffled the card deck before dealing.
right Right means “correct”: She always knew the right thing to say.
rite rite is a ceremony: Final rites for the deceased were held in the church.
write To write is to express oneself in writing: Rhoda Book writes everyone about her publishing career.
rise Rise is intransitive and does not have an object: The sun rises in the east.
raise Raise always has an object: You can raise a crop on a farm or raise your hand in class.
road Road is a long path or street to travel on: Lucille tries to stay on a main road wherever she travels.
rode Rode is past tense of ride: Matilda rode her bicycle over a cliff by accident.
role role is a part in a play or movie: Marjorie’s favorite role of her entire movie career was that of the quirky neighbor inKeep your Doors Locked. It can also mean “a function of”: Marjorie’s role in removing the insignia from the police car door was minor.
roll Roll is a verb meaning “to turn over and over”: Diane rolled the flat tire into the garage.
• S •
sale sale is a noun meaning “the selling of something”: Every car sale means a commission for the salesman.
sail sail is the material used to catch wind on a boat: The sail billowed in the wind as Jacob’s boat slid across the water.
sale sale is a noun meaning “the selling of something”: Every car sale means a commission for the salesman.
sell To sell, the verb, is to offer goods for consumption at a cost: Seth sells his pottery at art fairs.
sanguine Sanguine means “red, ruddy or optimistic”: I am not sanguine about your getting this job.
saturnine Saturnine means “being moody, sullen, or melancholy”: Ima Aiken falls into a saturnine mood every time her husband Hadley goes away on business.
scene Scene is a place or view: The scene of the crime was just outside his window.
seen Seen is past tense of see: I have seen that movie three times already.
seam seam is where two pieces are joined: The seam of Leticia’s dress ripped when she bent over.
seem To seem is to appear or look as if: Leticia seemed unhappy when that happened.
semimonthly See bimonthly, semimonthly.
sensor See censor, sensor, censure.
sensual Sensual refers to physical, especially sexual, pleasure: Derry Yare wears sensual dresses to attract men.
sensuous Sensuous refers to anything artistic that appeals to the senses or appetites: Marguerita had prepared a sensual feast for her guests.
serf serf is a slave or servant: Neil Downe came from a family of serfs but rose to become a landlord.
surf To surf is to ride the waves of water, or to search on the Internet: The surf is up down at the beach; ou can surf the Internet some other time.
set Set is a transitive verb meaning “to put or place something solid somewhere”: Marvin set his new lamp on the table.
sit Sit means “to rest upright with the weight on the buttocks or to move into such a position”; the past tense is sat: Percy sat down beside Geneva on the park bench.
seat Seat can be a verb meaning “to show someone their seat or where to sit”: The waiter seated Murgatroyd at his usual table by the door.
sever Sever means “to cut through completely”: One blow from Jessie’s hatchet severed the rope.
severe Severe means “strict, hard, extreme”: Severe winter weather came early this year. There was a severe tone in Marilyn’s voice when she berated Todd for putting the tack in her chair.
shear Shear means “to cut off”: We shear sheep’s wool in the spring and we shear the hedges in the summer.
sheer Sheer means “pure, unadulterated”: Felicity found the amusement park a sheer pleasure. Sheer also means “transparent”: Perry Winkle hung sheer curtains in the living room.
shore shore is a beach: to spend a vacation on the shore. It also means “to brace or support”: They shored up the leaning wall with steel beams.
sure Sure means “without doubt”: Maria was sure about the decision to move to another country.
singly Singly means “one by one”: The fire drill required everyone to leave the building quietly and singly.
singularly Singularly means “extraordinarily, in an outstanding manner”: He singularly fought the rebels off one by one.
site See cite, site, sight.
sleight-of-hand Sleight of hand refers to dexterity and trickery with the hands: The magician’s sleight of hand fooled the audience.
slight-of-hand This phrase is often confused with slight of hand, an adjective phrase meaning “having small slender hands”.
sole Sole means “single”: The sole remaining person in the room left, leaving it empty. It also means the bottom of a foot or shoe: Gigi needed new soles on her shoes.
soul soul refers to the spirit of a living creature: Do you believe animals have souls?
some time Some time refers to a considerable period of time: I need some time to think about it.
sometime Sometime refers to an indistinct or unstated time in the future: I’ll see you around sometime.
sometimes Sometimes is an adverb meaning continually, off and on, occasionally: Karen sometimes drinks coffee instead of tea.
stationary Stationary means “still and unmoving”: The cat was stationary until it was time to pounce on its prey.
stationery Stationery refers to writing materials such as paper: Craig took out his best stationery to write to his beloved Charlotte Russe.
statue statue is a carved or shaped imitation of an object: There is a statue of a large bird is in her garden.
statute statute is law: The government publishes new statutes each year.
stature Stature means “status, standing”: Chester Drors is a man of substantial stature in state politics.
storey Storey is the British spelling of story when this word refers to a floor of a building: The upper storeys of the building comprised apartments. The US spelling of this sense of the word is also story.
story story is a tale related in speech or writing by someone. In the US, it is also the spelling used to refer to the floor of a building: My home is three stories high.
straight Straight is an adjective that means having “no bends or curve”s: Pimsley’s walking cane is as straight as an arrow.
strait strait is a narrow channel connecting two bodies of water: The Bering Strait lies between Alaska and Siberia.
supposedly Supposedly means “reputedly” or “likely to be true”: Sam is supposedly the greatest waterboy in the football team’s history.
supposably Supposably means “can be supposed”: The best solution to the problem is supposably to ignore it. (However, this word is seldom used.)
• T •
taut Taut is a literary word that means “tight”: Hold the string taut while I mark the line.
taught Taught is the past tense of teach: Kenneth taught etiquette and good manners for several years.
tenant tenant is someone who rents property: A new tenant moved into the vacant apartment last week.
tenet tenet is a principle: The major tenets of all religions are similar.
than Than is used to compare: Philippa Byrd thinks she is smarter than any of us.
then Then is a word to describe a time that is not now: I prefer Friday; it would be better to meet then because then I will be ready.
their Their is possessive of they: The twins left their books at home.
there There refers to a place that is not here: We will be there in two hours.
they’re They’re is a contraction for they are: They’re going to a concert tonight.
theirself Only themselves is correct as a reflexive or emphatic pronoun: They gave themselves all the credit for the rescue.
threw Although these two words are pronounced the same, threw is the past tense of the verb throw, meaning “tossed, hurled in the air”: Morty threw the keys to the car to McKinley.
through Through is a preposition meaning “entering the inside of something and coming out the other side”: Chuck accidentaly threw a rock through Miss Conception’s living room window.
throes Throes are severe pains or difficult times: Wade Rivers found it difficult to listen to his iPod in the throes of battle.
throws Throws is the plural or present tense of throw: Several throws later, Bud Light managed to put a wad of paper in the trash can from his desk.
til Til is a contraction of the preposition until: I won’t see you til tomorrow. Only one L.
till Till is a verb meaning “to cultivate”: My Uncle Emmet tills about half the land on his farm and herds cattle on the rest.
to To is a preposition meaning “toward”: We go to the lake every summer. It also serves as the infinitive particle for verbs: I want to stop confusing words.
too Too means “also”: I’d love to go with you, too.
two Two is the number between one and three: We have two options: hire a divorce lawyer or a mortician.
torpid Torpid means “unresponsive, lacking alertness”: Prunella tried to elicit answers from the torpid students in front of her.
turgid Turgid means “very ornate and decorative”: The author’s turgid writing style lost my interest quickly. It can also mean “swollen and bulging”: Turgid veins covered her legs.
tortuous Tortuous means “winding, crooked, with many twists and turns”: Wiley Driver was very adept at driving the tortuous mountain roads of western North Carolina.
torturous Torturous means “very painful, like torture”: Mick Stupp found doing math homework torturous.
• U •
undoubtedly These three words may be used interchangeably, meaning “sure, without a doubt”: Mildred was undoubtedly| undoubtably|indubitably the best ballet dancer of all time.
uninterested See disinterested, uninterested.
• V •
vane vane is blade that rotates: I don’t know how hard the wind blew; it blew the weather vane off the roof.
vain Vain means “fruitless, hopeless, or without result”: Bertie harbors a vain hope of becoming a world-class ice skater.
vein Vein refers to the tubes that carry blood back to the heart: The veins are usually smaller than the arteries.
venal Venal means “corruptible, money-grubbing, likely to accept bribes”: Chris Cross is a man so venal he charged his mother for taking her to the hospital.
venial Venial means “easily forgiven”: The judge dismissed the venial crimes and focused on the theft of the chocolates.
verses Verses is plural of verse, a line of poetry: several Emerson’s verses were recited that evening.
versus Versus means “in comparison or opposition to”: The benefits of having a cell phone versus not having one depend on the individual.
vicious Vicious means “cruel and mean”: A vicious dog attacked the young boy.
viscous Viscous means “thick and sticky”: Honey and tar are viscous substances.
• WXYZ •
waist Waist refers the (often) narrow area of a human body between the hips and ribs: We often wear a belt around our waist.
waste Waste is garbage, or waste can be a verb meaning “to use carelessly”: You shouldn’t waste food and you should recycle waste paper.
wary Wary means “leery and cautious”: The customer became wary when the salesperson said he would personally guarantee the TV set for 100 years.
weary Weary means “tired and worn”: After a day of harvesting corn, the farmer was very weary.
wave To wave is to move back and forth; a wave is a swelling in a body of water due to movement: Helen Highwater waved her hand to the boat rocking in the waves.
waive Waive means “to give up, not require or ask for”: Never waive your right to a lawyer.
weak Weak is not strong: Finley gave a weak performance; maybe because he has a weak mind.
week Week refers to the names of the seven days, from Sunday to Saturday: I go to the ice skating rink once a week.
wear Wear is a verb (wear, wore, worn) meaning to have clothing on: Maud Lynn Dresser always wears gaudy evening gowns on formal occasions.
ware Ware is an article of merchandise, a product (usually used in the plural): The potter displayed her wares on a beautiful stand made by her husband.
were Were is past tense of are: Maud and her fiance were at the ball last weekend.
we’re We’re is a contraction for we are: We’re going to the ball this weekend so maybe we’ll see them.
weather Weather has to do with climate: I hope we have beautiful weather for my daughter’s wedding.
whether Whether means “if” and is used only inside sentences: I don’t know whether to bring an umbrella or not.
wet Wet is full of moisture: We had to dry out the wet sleeping bag on our camping trip after a sudden storm.
whet Whet is to stimulate or arouse: Smelling the stew whetted her appetite.
which Which means “what particular choice”: Which witch put the spell on you?
witch witch is a person who believes in or practices magic: Not all witches have warts on their noses (some have them on their chins).
who’s Who’s is a contraction for who is: Who’s going to vote today?
whose Whose is the possessive of who meaning “of whom”: Whose tickets are these?
wont Wont means “used to”: Maggie was wont to getting everything her way and cried when she didn’t.
won’t Won’t is a contraction for will not: Maggie won’t be getting every toy she wants this Christmas.
your Your is possessive for you: Your idea is fantastic!
you’re You’re is a contraction for you are: You’re the most treasured person in my life.
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List of Most Misspelled Words In English, Misspelled Words List

List of Most Misspelled Words In English, Misspelled Words List

• A •  
a while It should only take a little while to learn that this expression is two words, not one.
acceptable Unfortunately, there is no rule that predicts when to use -able and when to use -ible. But if you can accept a table in a cafe, you should be able to remember this one.
accidentally It is no accident that, if an adjective may end on the suffix -al, this suffix must be in the adverb—that is the al-rule. Theatric may be theatrical, so the adverb must be theatrically. No publical, then publicly is OK.
accommodate This word is large enough to accommodate two Cs and two Ms. Don’t forget.
accordion Since accordions do not come from Accordia, you spell the ending on this word, -i-o-n, not -i-a-n.
acquire You should acquire the habit of adding a silent C before the Q in this word.
acquit Don’t quit before adding a C before the Q in this word, either.
a lot If you allot some time learning that this expression is two words, you should master it after a while.
altar Be sure you do not alter (change) the spelling of altar when writing about churches.
amateur Amateurs may or may not be mature but you always spell these two words differently.
apparent It should be apparent to all that apparent has two Ps and a parent in it.
argument The silent E on the end of this word can’t argue with a suffix bigger than it is, so it gets out of argument.
atheist Remember religiously that this word is built on the same -the- “god” that we find in theology.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• B •  
believe You must believe the “I-before-E rule”: that I comes before E except after C or when it is pronounced like “a” as neighbor and weigh. However, beware of exceptions like foreign below.
bellwether A bellwether is not a bell that predicts the weather but a gelded ram (= a wether) with a bell around his neck, chosen to lead the herd by virtue of the greater likelihood that he will remain ahead of the ewes.
broccoli You don’t have to like broccoli to spell it correctly with two Cs and one L.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• C •  
calendar You might put a review of this word on your calendar: remind yourself that it ends with -ar, not -er.
camouflage Even though we shorten this word to camo, we should always remember U in the middle of the full form.
cantaloupe Here is another place we often forget U: don’t be misled by signs that say ‘Lopes for sale’.
Caribbean As any Carib bean tells you, this word has one R and two Bs.
category Spelling category like catastrophe isn’t catastrophic but it could be embarrassing.
cemetery Don’t let this word bury you: except for the final Y, the only vowel in it is E.
changeable The silent E on change is able to live with the suffix -able, so it remains to remind us that the G is soft, pronounced like J. (See also noticeable.)
chili You’ll never find a chilly chili but do keep their spelling straight: chili in the US, chilli elsewhere in the English-speaking world.
collectible Even if you collect tables, what you collect is collectible, with an I. Unfortunately, there is no rule for this one.
colonel There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that colonel is pronounced exactly like kernel—but spelled colonel.
column E is not the only letter in English that can be silent: column has a silent N.
committed Let’s hope you are committed to learning the double-consonant rule, that consonants at the end of a verb preceded by accented vowels are usually doubled when you add -ed (or -ing or -er): nab – nabbed, nap – napped, knit – knitted.
conscience No one with a conscience would try to con science. SCI is often pronounced [ch] after an N.
conscientious Here is a word where both SCI and TI are pronounced [ch] after an N. Be a conscientious speller and remember that.
conscious I hope that by now you are conscious of the fact that SCI after N is pronounced [ch] in English.
consensus The consensus (majority opinion) is that the census is a good idea, even though they are not spelled alike.
coolly You will coolly spell this word correctly if you remember that it is the adjective cool with the adverb suffix -ly.
cupboard Just because we don’t hear the P in this word when we pronounce it [kuhburd], doesn’t mean it’s not there.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• D •  
daiquiri After a few of these, you could forget that the name of this Cuban village contains 5 vowels, including 3 Is.
definite(ly) This word definitely sounds like it ends on T but that is because the E behind it remains silent no matter what.
descendant This word may also be spelled descendent but this spelling usually indicates an adjective (a descendent vine) while a person in a family tree is a descendant of his or her ancestors.
desiccate Don’t let memory dry up when spelling this word: double the C and not the S.
deterrence Four common English words ending on an accented vowel + R, double the R before the suffixes -ence and -ent: deterrence, abhorrence, occurrence, and concurrence.
discipline A little discipline in spelling habits will help you remember the silent C in the middle and silent E on the end of this word.
drunkenness Even sober writers sometimes forget one of the Ns in this word.
dumbbell Be careful calling someone else a dumbbell in your e-mails unless you remember both Bs.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• E •  
embarrass(ment) This word has an embarrassment of Rs and Ss—two of each.
equipment This word is easier to spell than you think if you avoid sticking a T between the P and the M: not equiptment!
exceed Exceed all expectations and master spelling this word like proceed but not like precede or supersede below.)
exhilarate Just think of the exhilaration knowing that you are one of those good writers who know this word contains an H.
existence Putting an A rather than an E before the NCE in this word can make your existence miserable.
experience Avoid the embarrassing experience of spelling this word with an A before the final NCE, too.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• F •  
fiery The final E in fire jumped over the R to get away from the Y. Wouldn’t you?
foreign The I-before-E rule is foreign to the spelling of foreign.
fulfill Full is not fully spelled in this word but fill is.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• G •  
gauge Learn to gauge the positions of the A and U in this word; they are in alphabetical order.
grateful Spelling grateful greatful grates on the eyes. Spelling it grateful is great.
guarantee I guarantee you that this word does not end like warranty and warranty does not end like guarantee.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• H •  
handkerchief Remember that handkerchiefs go in your hand and not on your head and you won’t forget the silent D. The I-before-E rule works in this word.
harass Don’t let the single R in this word harass you—only double the S.
height English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells “height” and “width” so differently—and ignores the I-before-E rule.
hierarchy The I-before-E rule works in this word, just as it does in hieroglyph.
humorous Humor us by spelling this word humorous: don’t forget the O and the U and no one will say, “Forget you!”
hypocrisy It isn’t just hype to say this word has nothing to do with hippos: it’s hip to spell it hypocrisy.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• I •  
ignorance Don’t let ignorance becloud the fact that this word ends on -ance, not -ence.
imitate Be sure not to imitate those who write this word with two As rather than two Is.
immediate This word contains two Ms in immediate proximity of each other—side by side.
incredible It is simply incredible that there is no rule that tells us when to use -ible and when to use -able. Just remember: incredible.
independent There is no independent way to spell this word: it ends on -ent not -ant.
indispensable The A in the suffix -able is indispensable if you want to spell this word correctly.
inoculate You should inoculate yourself against the temptation to double any letter in this word.
intelligence Let’s use our intelligence to remember the double L in this word and the ending -ence.
its/it’s Sometimes it’s hard to remember that it’s is a contraction of it is or it has while its means “belonging to it”, as in, “It’s too bad that its leg is broken.”
Spelling Memory Medicine
• J •  
jewelry Jewelry is made by a jeweler but the ending Y is a thief that pilfers the E from ER. If you use British spelling, please double the L: jeweller and jewellery. (See also pronunciation.)
just deserts We would not get our just deserts if we ate just desserts for our meals. Deserts with one S means “that which is deserved”, as is dessert when we finish our vegetables.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• K •  
kernel There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim colonel is spelled peculiarly to be pronounced the same as kernel. English spelling can be chaotic.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• L •  
leisure We can’t leisurely apply the I-before-E rule to this word: it does not follow it.
liaison The A is a liaison between the I’s in this word. It has three—count them—three vowels in a row.
library Pronouncing this word correctly helps with the spelling: you will find no berry in library.
license We’ll give you a license to spell this word with both letters for the sound “s”: C and S.
lightning Even though lightning is capable of lightening the sky, it contains no E.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• M •  
maintenance Help us maintain the correct spelling of maintenance by never forgetting the E in the middle: maintain but maintenance.
maneuver Always maneuver a EU into the middle of this word and, if you live outside the US, OEU: the British spelling of this word is manoeuver.
marshmallow No matter how mellow your marshmallow gets, it is still spelled with two As and an O, no Es.
medieval Take this memory med to remember that the adjective referring to the Middle Ages begins with MED and follows the I-before-E rule.
memento Don’t hesitate a moment to spell this word with two Es and one O.
millennium Never in a thousand years could we spell millennium with fewer that two Ls and two Ns.
miniature It is only a miniature task to write (and pronounce) the A in the middle of this word.
minuscule And it is but a minuscule task to remember that minuscule begins with a minus.
mischievous It would be very mischievous to ignore the I-before-E rule when spelling this word.
misogyny Of course, we all love women but the word for hating them ends on the same gyn- that we see in gynecology.
missile You can send a missal to your friend about launching a missile; just keep the missile in its silo.
misspell Misspelling misspell can be embarrassing, so remember both Ss and both Ls.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• N •  
nauseous This word has enough vowels to make you nauseous, another one with three vowels in a row, this time in alphabetical order.
neighbor Just remember: the neigh of a horse plus -bor and you will always spell this word correctly in the US. If you use British spelling, spell this word neighbour.
necessary It is necessary to use two Ss but only one C to write this word right every time.
no one Let no one tell you this is one word; it is always two.
noticeable Don’t forget to leave the final E of notice on before the suffix -able so everyone will know the C is soft (pronounced like S. See also changeable.)
Spelling Memory Medicine
• O •  
occasion Now is a good occasion to remember that this word has two Cs and one S.
occasionally Ditto for this word but also remember the al-rule: if an adjective may end on -al, its adverb must contain -al before -ly.
occurrence Never forget the two occurrences of C and the two occurrences of R in this word. (See other words that double R before -ence.)
Spelling Memory Medicine
• P •  
pastime Even though a pastime is a good way to pass time, you only need one S to spell it correctly.
perseverance Too much perseverance of the E is bad for the spelling of this word: all Es except the next to the last. Also notice that there is no R before the V.
personnel Funny Story: The assistant Vice-President of Personnel notices that his boss, the Vice-President himself, upon arriving at his desk each morning, opens a small locked box, looks inside, smiles, and locks it up again. Some years later when the assistant is promoted to his boss’s position, he comes to work early one morning and opens the secret box to see what was inside. He finds a single piece of paper on which is written: “Two Ns, one L.” That’s the way you spell personnel.
pigeon If you aren’t speaking pidgin English, you must spell pigeon without a D and with an -eon.
playwright If you play right, you are a right player but folks who write plays were first called “play-makers” or, to use the word of the time, playwrights, like cartwrights, wagonwrights, wheelwrights.
plenitude It takes a plenitude of self-restraint to resist the temptation of including a T in this word: plenty but plenitude.
possession The word possession possesses more Ss than a snake—four altogether.
precede Coming before is to precede; coming after is to succeed. Don’t you love the consistency of English spelling? Precede is spelled like accede, antecede, concede, intercede, recede, and secede, but not like proceed or supersede.
principal Just remember your principal is a prince and a pal in principle, especially if your principal is a man or woman of principles.
privilege Consider it a privilege to know that this word contains two I’s in a row followed by two Es.
proceed You may proceed to the spelling of precede and supersede once you know that this word is spelled like three others: exceed, proceed, and succeed.
pronunciation The pronunciation of pronunciation is not like that of pronounce—nor is the spelling.
publicly The al-rule works here, too: if publical is impossible, the adverb will be publicly.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• Q •  
queue This word sets a record: four vowels in a row forming a double UE! And speaking of rows, it refers to a line you stand. We pronounced the same as cue.
questionnaire Double up on the Ns in this word and don’t forget the silent E on the end. This is another French word causing problems for English spelling.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• R •  
raspberry If you can remember that the skin of a raspberry looks a little like a rasp, it will help you to remember the SP in this word that sounds like Z.
receive/receipt The I-before-E rule works on all words ending in -ceive, including this one, deceive, perceive, and conceive.
recommend We strongly recommend that you write this word with two Ms but only one C.
referred According to the double-consonant rule, single consonants at the end of verbs usually double before -ed if preceded by an accented vowel.
reference Reference contains only one vowel, E. The R is not doubled before -ence because the er is not accented as it is in deterrence.
relevant The A in this word is very relevant to its spelling; do not replace it with E. Of course, the L always precedes the V even though revelant looks like a real word.
restaurant Restaurants aren’t for resters, so you don’t spell it that way. The middle of this word is AU as in Australia.
rhyme This word was originally spelled rime but not any more; it looked so much like rhythm that ancients decided it should be spelled that way.
rhythm This word was borrowed from Greek (and never returned) so the R sound is spelled the Greek way, RH.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• S •  
sandal Sandals won’t keep out the sand, Al, but if you spell the word with two As, you will at least spell it correctly.
schedule School should schedule a time to learn how to spell this word since school and schedule start on the same letters. Outside the US, this word is pronounced [shedjule], not [skedjule].
scissors See the C in scissors? You can’t snip it out when you spell this word.
seize Pronounced like two Cs, this word roundly breaks the I-before-E rule.
separate Never forget that two As separate the Es when spelling separate.
sergeant The sergeant’s nickname is Sarge but his full name is sergeant. (Don’t ask why.)
succeed If you want to succeed in this world, you must learn how to spell succeed. Remember, it is spelled double C and double E, like proceed but not like precede and supersede.
supersede This word supersedes all others in spelling perversity. Spelling words like proceed and precede raise problems enough. The good news is, this is the only English word like these spelled -sede.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• T •  
their/they’re/there Their pronunciation is the same but not their spelling. Possessive their means “belonging to them” and they’re is a contraction of “they are”. That leaves there for everywhere else.
threshold This one can looks like a compound thresh + hold but it isn’t. Two Hs in the middle of this word pushes you over the threshold of bad spelling.
tomorrow One M and two Rs yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
turmeric This word for an antioxident spice has suffered enough. It was originally Old French terre-merite and has already been reduced to turmeric. Don’t make it suffer any more.
twelfth Remember the little elf in the middle of twelfth and you should write this word right every time.
tyranny Remember how tyrant is spelled and the correct spelling of tyranny follows. Of course, we mustn’t forget to double the N.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• U •  
until I won’t stop saying that this word ends on only one L until everyone is spelling it correctly!
Spelling Memory Medicine
• V •  
vacuum A vacuum holds a large volume of dust but the two words do not end the same.
Spelling Memory Medicine
• WXYZ •  
weather In good weather or bad, we must write an A after the WE.
weird It’s so weird to see how this word breaks the I-before-E rule.


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